For an industry accustomed to experiencing the highest of highs and the lowest of lows, 2022 tested clean energy’s tolerance maybe more than any other. From a transformational legislative victory to a war, persistent supply chain constraints, and trade disputes— 2022 had it all. Unprecedented optimism was matched, or sometimes surpassed, by the urgency of human rights abuses in solar and worsening climate threats. Here’s a look back at the five biggest stories from the year.

1. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine accelerates energy transition

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine heightened the importance of energy independence and a transition away from fossil fuels, as the Kremlin’s bankroll is directly tied to oil and gas profits. G7 countries have imposed an oil price cap, while the European Union banned Russian seaborne imports of crude oil and oil products, in an attempt to stunt Russia’s revenues, which directly fuel Vladimir Putin’s war machine. Germany, meanwhile, plans to invest 28 billion euro ($30 billion) through 2026 to expand its solar and wind power generating capacity and reduce its dependence on fossil fuels imported from Russia. A direct assault on Ukraine’s electric power infrastructure began in October as Russia began a systematic shelling of Ukrainian energy […]